The National Wildlife Federation

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Climate Policy Recommendations

aerial photograph of harmful algal blooms over Lake ErieClimate change is one of the biggest threats to human communities and the long-term survival of America’s wildlife. Impacts include worsening megafires and hurricanes; harmful algal outbreaks; habitat loss; the spread of disease, pests, and invasive species; and a host of other dangerous conditions for people and wildlife. As such, we need practical policy solutions that will mitigate the impacts of climate change by quickly reducing carbon pollution emissions and ensure we are able to adapt to the impacts we cannot avoid.

Below are actions that we must take in order to confront the growing threat of climate change.

Climate Mitigation

Over 50 carbon pricing schemes are already in place or are scheduled for implementation throughout the world. Ten U.S. states have also priced carbon pollution, seeing it as an efficient way to speed the transition to a lower carbon economy while earning revenues and boosting economic activity. Two primary policies include a carbon tax, which would establish a specific fee—ideally at an increasing rate over time—to discourage high-carbon activities, and a cap-and-trade program, which would auction off a declining number of pollution permits over time, driving up the cost of available permits, thus incentivizing lower carbon activities. A carbon price could be constructed to drive pollution reductions throughout the economy.

We must continue our rapid transition away from harmful fossil fuels towards responsibly developed wildlife friendly renewable energy that benefits all. Wind power—both on and offshore—and solar power provide increasingly affordable clean alternatives to fossil fuel combustion. The following policies would support this transition:

  • Federal and state adoption of renewable energy portfolio standards to drive demand.
  • Tax credits to help level the playing field with subsidized fossil fuels.
  • Grants to facilitate low-income and rural use of renewable energy.
  • Improved transmission policies to ready the nation’s power grid to accommodate more renewable sources.
  • Robust investment in renewable energy research and development, energy storage, and community renewable energy programs.

Congress should also ensure the U.S. continues to develop its vast renewable resources wisely by keeping strong bedrock conservation protections in place while supporting federal permitting and leasing processes that are efficient, environmentally responsible, and direct development to low impact areas. The nation’s first-ever offshore wind project in Rhode Island provides an excellent example.

Today, U.S. forests, grasslands, and soils offset approximately 15 percent of all U.S. fossil fuel related emissions each year (equal to half of all transportation emissions). A significant opportunity exists to expand policy measures to increase this carbon storage capacity of our lands and forests. Measures can include:

  • Optimizing existing federal policies that could be tailored to promote land use for carbon storage
  • Developing carbon inclusive forest management principles, including the prevention of massive, climate change-fueled wildfires
  • Incentivizing reforestation that is good for ecosystems and wildlife
  • Reducing the risk of forest, wetland, and grassland conversion to development

Current law gives the federal government clear authority to protect the public health and welfare from carbon pollution and climate change. Sensible measures were put in place to reduce this pollution and related risks to wildlife and people, yet the current administration is undoing this progress. For example, three significant policies that should be implemented, not weakened or repealed, are:

  • The Clean Power Plan: The Clean Power Plan (CPP) was the first-ever federal limit on carbon pollution from the power sector. The future of the CPP remains uncertain, though the need for rapid reductions in emissions from the power sector remains. Meanwhile, the United States is already rapidly transitioning away from coal to clean, renewable energy sources like wind and solar. Policy makers must encourage this trend, and many states are rightfully taking steps now to implement the plan.
  • Oil and gas methane standards: Methane pollution (mostly leakage and flaring) from oil and gas production is another key source of greenhouse gas emissions, and a waste of a valuable energy resource. Methane is the second most prevalent greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and has 80 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide over a twenty year time period. The Environmental Protection Agency and the Bureau of Land Management must implement rules that will limit methane pollution from new, modified, and existing sources in the oil and gas industry, including intentional venting and flaring of methane, and accidental leakage.
  • Fuel economy improvements: The transportation sector recently surpassed electricity generation to become the largest source of carbon pollution in the United States. Carbon dioxide emissions from this sector have been rising since 2013. Significant emissions benefits are possible through strengthening federal clean car standards that improve fuel efficiency and lower tailpipe carbon pollution—and preserving California’s Clean Air Act authority to set more stringent standards. Additional clean car improvements were required for new vehicles (equal to a fleet-wide average of 54 miles per gallon by 2025), though the current administration is proposing rescinding these while attempting to block California’s authority. In addition to reinstating these cleaner standards, the United States should also invest in zero-emissions vehicle technologies and batteries, help build out needed electric vehicle infrastructure, and work with local areas to incentivize public transit and design cities and towns to lower vehicle miles traveled.


deer running past fire 

Climate Adaptation

Understanding climate-related vulnerabilities to natural resources and human communities is key to designing effective adaptation strategies to reduce those risks. Preparing for projected climate changes and related impacts will be increasingly important, and climate adaptation should be integrated into planning at all levels of government—local, state, and federal. Proactive adaptation and resilience actions can significantly reduce the impact of hurricanes, storms, drought, and other climate-related threats.

Natural ecosystems, such as wetlands, dunes, and forests, can buffer the impact of storms, floods, and other extreme weather events on local communities. Unfortunately, the loss or degradation of natural habitats has increased the climate-risks to many communities. Protecting and restoring natural systems can be a cost-effective means of protecting people and property, and these natural solutions have the added benefit of being capable, in many cases, of self-repairing after storm or flood damage or keeping pace with rising sea levels. In contrast to hard infrastructure, nature-based solutions also can provide benefits for wildlife habitat, water quality, and recreation.

Climate-related impacts are undermining the health of the nation’s forests, rangelands, and water supplies. Adopting and applying the principles of climate-smart conservation can help natural resource managers ensure that our lands and waters continue supporting the needs of both people and wildlife. Federal and state management policies should be modified to take future, rather than past, climate conditions into account, and to prioritize resilience and long-term sustainability. Policies for land and water management should also strive to enhance the capacity of these systems to sequester and store carbon, but do so in ways that also maintain and restore wildlife habitat.

A changing climate will result in unprecedented ecological changes, including shifting ranges for many wildlife species. Habitat corridors already are essential for migratory animals and the natural dispersal of flora and fauna, but these linkages will become even more significant in a warming world. Enhancing and restoring habitat corridors and landscape connectivity will be key to helping wildlife species track suitable climatic conditions. Additionally, climate-related threats, such as sea level rise, will dramatically affect many coastal habitats, such as wetlands. In the face of rising seas, these wetlands will only be capable of shifting inland if there is adjacent undeveloped open space.

As climate change amplifies the frequency, severity, and extent of storms, floods, wildfires, and other natural hazards, increasing numbers of existing homes and businesses will be impacted. Discouraging new development in risky locations will be key to reducing future impacts of climate change. Development in floodplains, forests, and other risky areas often fragments and degrades the capacity of natural systems to absorb floodwaters and provide other protective benefits to adjacent communities. Discouraging development in hazardous areas will rely on accurate and up-to-date risk maps, which take future climatic conditions into account. Policies should be adopted at local, state, and federal levels that remove subsidies or incentives for building in environmentally sensitive areas, and instead encourage development in areas with lower natural hazard risks.

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) should be reformed to curb the use of taxpayer dollars to subsidize and promote development and re-development in environmentally sensitive and risky places in coastal areas and floodplains. The program should move toward risk-based rates for all properties, with means-tested assistance for those who cannot afford actuarial rates. Communities that engage in pro-active hazard mitigation efforts should be rewarded with preferential flood insurance rates. Similarly, federal disaster response programs should emphasize more pre-disaster planning and risk mitigation. By significantly increasing investment in proactive hazard mitigation, the federal government could greatly reduce future impacts and disaster costs. The federal government should also reinstate the Federal Flood Risk Management Standard, which creates common-sense rules to help protect communities and federal investments from future floods.

All policies should ensure that the benefits of resilience and adaptation efforts are justly distributed across society. Low income, minority, and other historically underserved populations often are on the front lines of the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise, and can be made even more vulnerable by poverty, linguistic isolation, and poor infrastructure.

The ability of society to prepare for and adapt to changing climatic conditions depends on reliable scientific information. Effective adaptation requires an understanding of how the climate is, or may be, changing, the potential impacts of those changes for people, ecosystems, and wildlife, and an understanding of how various strategies may be capable of reducing those impacts or risks. Unfortunately, climate science is under attack at the federal level, through efforts to defund important scientific programs, reduce access to existing information, and limit the role of science and scientists in the formulation of public policies and regulations. There is an urgent need to reverse these anti-science policies, and adopt or reinstate policies that assure scientific integrity and a reliance on science-based facts in policies and regulations.

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