Scientific Name: Crotalus spp. and Sistrurus spp.
Description: Rattlesnakes are highly specialized, venomous reptiles with large bodies and triangle-shaped heads. They are one of the most iconic groups of North American snakes due to the characteristic “rattle” found at the tip of the tail. The rattle is composed of a series of interlocking scales, which are added to each time the snake molts. Muscle contractions cause the scales to click together, resulting in the rattle sound.
Size: A number of different rattlesnakes live in the United States, and they range in size from the 1 foot long ridge-nosed rattlesnake to the 5 to 8 foot long eastern diamondback.
Diet: Rattlesnakes are pit vipers—they have heat sensing organs located in pits near the eyes. These pits allow them “see” the heat signature of prey. Even in complete darkness, the snake will be able to accurately strike at prey, because their meal is warmer than the surrounding environment. Rattlesnakes lay in wait for a small mammal to venture nearby and then strike the unsuspecting animal with its venomous fangs. This hunting technique is called ambush predation. The rattlesnake knows when to lay low, because they have specialized Jacobson’s organs that give them a heightened sense of smell to detect prey. These organs are located on the roof of the mouth, which is why many people think that snakes smell with their tongues. Actually, they pick up scent particles on the tongue and deposit them on the Jacobson’s organs. A meal lasts a rattlesnake much longer than a human—an adult rattler only needs to eat once every two weeks! Aside from rodents, rattlesnakes also eat reptiles and insects.
Predation: When rattlesnakes sense a threat, different species have developed various ways to protect themselves. Some have evolved camouflage coloration to blend in with their surroundings and others are good at silent escape. When a rattlesnake chooses to stand its ground, it takes a defensive pose and shakes its rattle to warn off predators. If startled, the snake may go straight to the attack, but they can only strike from a coiled position. Rattlesnakes do not seek people out—generally people who are bitten have had the misfortune of stumbling across a rattlesnake or have attempted to handle one.
Typical Lifespan: 10 to 25 years.
Habitat: They live in a variety of habitats, including forest, grasslands, scrub brush, swamps, and deserts, and they are also capable swimmers. Almost all reptiles, including rattlesnakes, are ectothermic (cold-blooded). Ectotherms cannot regulate their body temperatures like warm-blooded animals can. Instead, they rely on their surroundings to provide heat, which means that they can’t be active in cold weather. To keep from freezing, rattlesnakes congregate in dens and form swarming balls with their bodies.
Range: Rattlesnakes are found in almost every part of the continental U.S., but they’re especially common in the southwest. Mexico, Central America, and South America are also homes to rattlesnakes.
Life History and Reproduction: Rattlesnakes are ovoviviparous—they don’t lay eggs. Instead, the eggs are carried by the female for about three months, and then she gives birth to live young.
Although rattlesnakes may seem scary to people, they play a very important role in their ecosystems by controlling small mammal populations.
Conservation status: Most species are stable, but one species and one subspecies are Federally listed as Threatened. Rattlesnakes are vulnerable to being killed by those who view them as dangerous pests rather than important predators. Snakes that imitate the rattlers, like gopher snakes, are mistakenly killed when they are incorrectly identified as rattlesnakes.
US Fish & Wildlife Service
Florida Museum of Natural History
Arizona Game and Fish Department
San Diego Zoo Animal Bytes
California Department of Fish and Game
National Geographic Society
Rattlesnakes on the Hunt
Western diamondback rattlesnakes maintain surprisingly complex relationships with ground squirrels, birds and each other
How Rattesnake Fossils Teach Us about the Future
The remains of ancient rattlesnakes give scientists clues about how living species adapt to changing climate
How Rattlesnakes Rattle
Rattlesnakes can vibrate their rattles at phenomenal speeds for hours at a time; do their muscles hold secrets that could help humans better perform exercises?
Biologists and physicians are trying to determine why rattlesnake bites in the West have seemed more dangerously toxic in recent years
The Private Lives of Pit Vipers
New research on rattlesnakes reveals how little we really know about venomous serpents