Status: Not Listed
Moles are small, burrowing mammals. Their eyes are poorly developed, but what they lack in sight, they make up for in their sense of touch. All moles have very sensitive snouts and long, clawed digits that they use to dig tunnels. The 22 tentacle-like protrusions on the snout of the star-nosed mole are six times more sensitive to touch than a human hand.
Rather than having fur that lays flat and points toward the tail like most mammals, eastern moles have dense fur that sticks straight up. This prevents soil from becoming trapped in their coats when they back up through a tunnel. Male moles are usually bigger than females, although most species don’t exceed 10 inches (25 centimeters) in length.
Moles are found in the eastern states and southern Great Plains. The shrew-mole is native to the West Coast. Moles are fossorial, meaning they spend much of their life digging underground burrows. Moles are amazing tunnelers—eastern moles can hollow out a 160-foot (49-meter) burrow in just one night. (The human equivalent would be digging a half-mile [0.8-kilometer] tunnel in the same amount of time.) Most species live in meadow, grassland, woodland, wetland, or riparian habitats. However some, like the desert shrew, can live in arid regions.
Female moles give birth to their young in underground tunnels. They grow quickly and can live independently at a young age. The typical lifespan is probably less than two years for most species.
Most species are stable. Landscapers sometimes consider moles to be pests, since they can damage lawns and gardens. These small animals are very important, however, for aerating the soil and eliminating harmful insects.
Ever heard the expression “making a mountain out of a molehill”? When moles dig tunnels, all that dirt has to go somewhere—it gets piled in “molehills” near the entrance to the tunnel. These hills of dirt indicate that a mole is living nearby.
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
Texas Tech University
The Nature Institute
University of Florida
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