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Wildlife Connectivity

Wildlife rely on secure habitat and the ability to move—sometimes over great distances—to maintain robust populations through increased reproduction and survival rates. Movements occur on both daily and seasonal basis and understanding movements and their impediments are essential in maintaining landscape connectivity.

Friendly fences sign

Connectivity is a landscape level ecological characteristic that leads to a proper functioning and more resilient ecosystem. Connectivity enables wildlife to track changes in seasonal conditions, exploit forage quality and quantity across the landscape, return to or locate new breeding grounds, respond to stochastic events (i.e., fire, drought, snow, flooding) and, adapt to human development. Corridors are essential to landscape connectivity, and wildlife use them on a daily basis to find food and water and on a seasonal basis to migrate or disperse to other areas. Landscape connectivity is threatened when habitat in corridors or seasonal ranges is lost due to conversion or other human development. In addition, linear features such as roads, fences and railroads fragment the landscape and incrementally reduce the ability for wildlife to move.

The National Wildlife Federation realizes that the best way to increase landscape connectivity is to work with all stakeholders across the landscape. Increasing connectivity on large scales requires working across land jurisdictions because wildlife is unconcerned with man-made borders. We use scientific approaches to identify migration corridors impediments to movement. Tools of the trade include remote cameras, GPS tracking devices, modelling approaches, and monitoring. Fostering long-term relationships is essential, and we partner with state and federal agencies, landowners, universities and other conservation organizations to find on-the-ground solutions that support wildlife and people. See our recent report for Ranchers Stewardship Alliance that prioritizes habitat to sustain migratory pathways and winter range for big game in Northcentral Montana. 

Pronghorn crossing under fence

Wildlife Xing is a citizen-science based program which seeks to address wildlife-transportation conflicts through short and long-term goals (see this video). Through community involvement, we will collect data to help identify hot spots for mitigation opportunities along roadways. We will also develop a connectivity curriculum so that middle and high school students can learn about this ecological phenomenon and localize it to their specific landscape.  The program includes the use of smartphone technology and an associated on-line mapping tool to increase efficiency, accuracy and ease of data collection, and ultimately generate a dataset to be used to inform strategies for mitigating wildlife-vehicle collisions and improve ecological connectivity, which has benefits to both wildlife and human safety. We currently are rebranding the program to Wildlife Xing — all wildlife species across all ecosystem types can be recorded using the app. To learn more about the Pronghorn Xing program or to download the app, check out the website or our Facebook page!

Andrew Jakes, NWF’s regional wildlife biologist, has been working on wildlife connectivity issues for over a decade. See below for some relevant co-authored publications:

Scientific Papers

• Sagebrush Conservation Strategy - Challenges to Sagebrush Conservation
Multi-scale habitat assessment of pronghorn migration routes
Prioritizing human safety and multispecies connectivity across a regional road network
Annual Pronghorn Survival of a Partially Migratory Population
Evaluating Responses by Sympatric Ungulates to Fence Modifications Across the Northern Great Plains
Fences reduce habitat for a partially migratory ungulate in the Northern Sagebrush Steppe
Beyond protected areas: Private land and public policy anchor intact pathways for multi-species wildlife migration
Longest terrestrial migrations and movements around the world
A fence runs through it: A call for greater attention to the influence of fences on wildlife and ecosystems
To Jump or Not to Jump: Mule Deer and White-Tailed Deer Fence Crossing Decisions
Classifying the Migration Behaviors of Pronghorn on Their Northern Range
New Mexico Wildlife Habitat Linkage Assessment - Pronghorn
Evaluating Responses by Pronghorn to Fence Modifications Across the Northern Great Plains
Modeling Fence Location and Density at a Regional Scale for Use in Wildlife Management

The National Wildlife Federation Northern Rockies, Prairies, and Pacific region's continued work aims to build upon these initiatives, with a long-term vision of restoring large migratory populations of native wildlife and thriving local communities. Our collaborative work depends on protecting habitats and removing migration barriers, as well as building networks of community awareness and support. Our work centers around assessing wildlife migration barriers, removing or modifying fences that get in the way of wildlife movements, mitigation efforts along transportation corridors, restoring critical wet areas on the dry prairie, and engaging local high communities in citizen-science wildlife monitoring efforts.

For more information about the National Wildlife Federation's wildlife connectivity and migration work, please contact Andrew Jakes at

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Where We Work

More than one-third of U.S. fish and wildlife species are at risk of extinction in the coming decades. The National Wildlife Federation is on the ground in seven regions across the country, collaborating with 53 state and territory affiliates to reverse the crisis and ensure wildlife thrive.

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